Photo of Emeritus Professor Tim Niblock

Emeritus Professor Tim Niblock

Research Interests

My research interests fall mainly into the following areas

i. The political economy of Arab and Islamic states, with particular reference to Sudan, Egypt, Iraq, Libya, Saudi Arabia and the smaller Arab states of the Gulf. Specific attention is focused on the social and political effects of economic liberalisation in these states. A book project examining the political economy of Saudi Arabia is nearing completion. Earlier, a 6-volume collection of articles was jointly edited with Rodney Wilson, under the overall title "The Political Economy of the Middle East" (Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2000). The wider theoretical framework through which Middle Eastern political economy is approached are those of underdevelopment, the dynamics of rentier state economies, and liberalisation/democratisation theories.

ii. The international relations of Middle Eastern states, with particular reference to the interactions between these states and the wider international community. A recent focus has been on the impact of UN sanctions on Iraq, Libya and Sudan, on which a book was written: " 'Pariah States' and Sanctions in the Middle East: Iraq, Libya and Sudan" Lynne Rienner, London, 2001). A long-running interest has been on EU policies towards, and relations with, Middle Eastern states.

iii The Gulf and Asia: Up to the present, my publications in this field have been focused mainly on the Gulf and China, but I am now broadening the focus to Gulf relations with Asia as a whole – in particular China, India, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Two articles focused on China and the Gulf were: “China’s Growing Involvement in the Gulf”, and “China’s Intensifying Relationship with Saudi Arabia” (with Norafidah Ismail), in Shen, S, and Blanchard, J-M, Multidimensional Diplomacy of Contemporary China (New York: Lexington Books, 2010). More widely, an edited book: Asia-Gulf Economic Relations in the 21st Century (Gerlach, Berlin, 2013).

iv. Islam and the state: the role of religion in state-building and state-resisting, with particular reference to the Middle East. Also issues of human rights in Islamic perspectives, focusing on the interplay between universalism and cultural relativity. The position of Muslim communities in Europe has recently come within the scope of this research interest, and has encompassed the social, economic and political conditions facing these communities. An edited work on this, jointly with Gerd Nonneman and Bogdan Szajkowski, was published in 1996: "Muslim Communities in the New Europe".

v. Legitimacy, civil society and political power in the Arab World. A recent book of mine within this sphere is Saudi Arabia: Power, Legitimacy and Survival (Routledge, London, 2006).



(a) Books

i Social and Economic Development in the Arab Gulf (ed.), (Croom Helm,
 London, 1980), 242pp.

ii State, Society and Economy in Saudi Arabia (ed.), (Croom Helm,
 London, 1981), 326pp.

iii Iraq: the Contemporary State (ed.), (Croom Helm, London, 1982), 283pp.

iv Prospects for the World Oil Industry (ed. with Richard Lawless),
 (Croom Helm, London, May 1985), 131pp., 32 tables

v Class and Power in Sudan: the Dynamics of Sudanese Politics, 1898-
 1985, (Macmillan, London, 1987) 391pp.

vi Sira' al-Sultah wa al-Tharwah fi al-Sudan: munthu al-Istiqlal wa hata
 al-Intifadah (The Struggle for Power and Resources in Sudan: from
 Independence to the Uprising), (University of Khartoum Press, 1990,
 2nd. edition 1995), 300pp.

vii Political and Economic Liberalisation in the Middle East ed. with
 Emma Murphy, (British Academic Press, London, 1993), 302pp.

viii Muslim Communities in the New Europe ed. with Gerd Nonneman and
 Bogdan Szajkowski, (Ithaca Press, Reading, 1996), ix + 346pp.

ix Security Challenges in the Mediterranean Region ed. with Roberto
 Aliboni and George Joffe, (Frank Cass, London, 1996), 195pp.

x-xvi Political Economy of the Middle East, six volumes jointly edited with Rodney Wilson. Volume I: Economic Development, 384pp., Volume II: International Economic Relations, 320pp., Volume III: Islamic Economics, 528pp., Volume IV: Economic and Political Liberalisation, 448pp., Volume V: The Role of the State, 448pp., Volume VI: Oil, 400pp., (Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2000)

xvii Sanctions and the "Pariah States" in the Middle East: Iraq, Libya and Sudan, (Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder, 2001), 241pp.

xviii Al-‘Uqubat wa al-Mambudhun fi al-Sharq al-Awsat (Sanctions and the “Pariah States” in the Middle East – translation of xi), (Centre for Arab Unity Studies, Beirut, 2001), 268pp.

xix Saudi Arabia: Power, Legitimacy and Survival (Routledge, London, 2006), 206pp.

xx        Al-Mamlakah al-Arabiyah al-Suudiyah (Gulf Research Centre, Dubai, 2006), 210pp. Translation of the above-mentioned Routledge book.

xxi The Political Economy of Saudi Arabia (Routledge, London, 2007), 254pp.

xxii Asia-Gulf Economic Relations in the 21st Century: the Local to Global Transformation (ed), (Gerlach, Berlin, 2013), 370pp.

(b) Non-Book Monographs

i Dilemmas of Non-Oil Economic Development in the Arab Gulf, (Arab
 Research Centre, London, 1980), 40pp.

ii Economic Liberalisation in the Arab World: its Social and Political
 Significance, (RUSEL, Exeter, 1991), 18pp.

(c) Chapters in Books, Proceedings

i 'East Africa and the Commonwealth', in Collected Seminar Papers on
 the Impact of African Issues on the Commonwealth, (Institute of
 Commonwealth Studies, London, 1969), pp.31-47

ii 'Theory and the Integration of the Arab Gulf', in M. Al-Najjar (ed.),
 Man and Society in the Arab Gulf, (University of Basrah Publications,
 Basrah, 1980), pp.173-190

iii 'Introduction' in T. Niblock (ed.), Social and Political Development
 in the Arab Gulf, (Croom Helm, London, 1980), pp.11-19

iv 'Prospects for Integration in the Arab Gulf, in T. Niblock (ed.),
 Social and Economic Development in the Arab Gulf, (Croom Helm,
 London, 1980), pp. 187-209

v 'Can the Indian Ocean States keep out the Great Powers?' in A. Farid,
 Oil and Security in the Arabian Gulf, (Croom Helm, London, 1981),
 pp. 130-133

vi 'The Role of the Sudanese Socialist Union in Sudan's System of
 Government', in C. Allen (ed.), Post-Independence Sudan, Centre of
 African Studies, University of Edinburgh, 1981), pp.11-24

vii 'Introduction', in T. Niblock (ed.), State, Society and Economy in Saudi
 Arabia, (Croom Helm, London, 1981), pp.11-22

viii 'Social Structure and the Development of the Saudi Arabian Political
 System', in T. Niblock (ed.), State, Society and Economy in Saudi
 Arabia, (Croom Helm, London, 1982), pp.75-105

ix 'The Emergence of an Industrial Working Class in the Sudan under
 Condominium Rule', in La Classe Ouvriere dans le Monde Arab, collected
 conference papers, (Research Centre on Workers' Culture, Algiers,
 1984), pp.420-64

x 'Introduction' in T. Niblock (ed.), Iraq: the Contemporary State,
 (Croom Helm, London, 1982), pp.1-7

xi 'Iraqi Policies towards the Arab States of the Gulf, 1958-81' in T.
 Niblock (ed.), Iraq: the Contemporary State, (Croom Helm, London,
 1982), pp.125-149

xii 'Le Golfe dans la Politique Etrangere de l'Irak, 1968-82', in B.
 Kodami (ed.), Quelle Securite pour le Golfe?, (Institut Francais des
 Relations Internationales, Paris, 1984), pp.65-86

xiii 'Erdolwirtschaft und ihr Einfluss auf die sozialen und politischen
 Strukturen der Golfregion', in F. Scholz (ed.), Die Golfstaaten,
 (Westerman, Braunschweig, 1985), pp.187-200

xiv 'Al-Khalij wa Siyaasat al 'Iraq al-Khalijah' (The Gulf and Iraq's
 Gulf Policy) in B.Q.Dawish (ed.), Amn al-Khalij, (Ecogroup, Paris,
 1986), pp.58-71

xv 'Numayri's Fall: the Economic Basis', in M. Abd al-Rahim, R. Badal,
 A. Hardallo and P. Woodward, (eds.) Sudan Since Independence,
 Gower, London, 1986), pp.34-41

xvi 'Interactions of State and Economy in Sudan: the Experience of a
 Critical Period, in Collected Conference Papers, (BRISMES, London,
 1986), pp.293.306

xvii 'International Relations' in P. Auchterlonie (ed.), The Middle East
 and Islam: a Bibliographical Introduction, 1977-83, (Inter
 Documentation Company, Zug, 1986), pp.122-7

xviii 'Modern Arabia and the Gulf States' in P. Auchterlonie (ed.), The
 Middle East and Islam: a Bibliographical Introduction, 1977-83,
 (Inter Documentation Company, Zug, 1986), pp.135-41

xix 'The Economics of the Israeli Settlements in the Occupied
 Territories: a Commentary', in League of Arab States, Israeli
 Settlements in the Occupied Arab Territories, (League of Arab States,
 Tunis, 1987), pp.269-76

xx 'Introduction', in H. Al-Alkim, The Foreign Policy of the United Arab
 Emirates, (Saqi Books, London, 1989), pp.xv-xix

xxi 'The State of the Art in British Middle Eastern Studies', in T.
 Ismael, The State of the Art in Middle Eastern Studies, (Praeger,
 New York, 1989), pp. 39-57

xxii 'The Gulf Crisis and the Comprehension of Middle Eastern Politics', in
 T. Ismael and J. Ismael (eds.), Politics and Government in the Middle
 East and North Africa, (Miami, Florida International University
 Press, 1991) pp.ix-xiv

xxiii 'The Nature of Community in the Middle East: a Case Study of Sudan',
 in T. Kuroda and R. Lawless (eds.) The Nature of the Islamic
 Community, (Tokyo, Keiso Shobo, 1991), pp.209-232  

xxiv 'Islamic Movements and Sudan's Political Coherence', in H. Bleuchot,
 C. Delmet and D. Hopwood (eds.),  Sudan: History, Identity, Ideology,
 (Reading, Ithaca Press, 1991), pp.253-268

xxv 'The Background to the Change of Government in 1985', in P. Woodward
 (ed.), Sudan after Nimeiri, (London, Routledge, 1991), pp.34-44

xxvi 'Arab Losses, First World Gains', in J. Gittings (ed.), Beyond the
 Gulf War: the Middle East and the New World Order, (London, CIIR,
 1991), pp.77-85

xxvii 'The Realms within which Regional Cooperation and Integration could
 be Fostered' in G. Nonneman (ed.), The Middle East and Europe: an
 Integrated Communities Approach, (London, Federal Trust, 1992),
 pp. 45-52. Also in second edition 1993.

xxviii 'The Eastern Arab World: Background Assessment', in G. Nonneman
 (ed.), The Middle East and Europe: an Integrated Communities
 Approach, (London, Federal Trust, 1992), pp. 159-162. Also in second
 edition, 1993.

xxix 'Can Universalistic Norms and Islamic Cultural Traditions be
 Reconciled?', in A. Sinada (ed.), Religion and Human Rights: the Case
 of Sudan, (London, Sudan Human Rights Organisation, 1992), pp.25-44

xxx 'Democratisation and Economic Liberalisation in the Arab World:
 Mutually Reinforcing or Incompatible?' in R. Kimber (ed.), Democracy
 in the Middle East, Proceedings of the 1992 BRISMES Conference,
 (University of St Andrews, 1992), pp.207-216

xxxi 'Introduction' (with E. Murphy), in T. Niblock and E. Murphy (eds.),
 Economic and Political Liberalisation in the Middle East, (British
 Academic Press, London, 1993), pp.xi-xvii

xxxii 'International and Domestic Factors in the Economic Liberalisation
 Process in Arab Countries', in T. Niblock and E. Murphy (eds.),
 Economic and Political Liberalisation in the Middle East, (British
 Academic Press, London, 1993), pp.55-87

xxxiii 'Towards a Conference on Security and Cooperation in the
 Mediterranean and Middle East', in G. Nonneman (ed.), The Middle East
 and Europe: an Integrated Communities Approach, (London, Federal
 Trust, 1992), pp.245-50. Also in second edition, 1993.

xxxiv 'Emerging Patterns of Conflict and Order in the Middle East. How
 much Change and how much Continuity?, in H. Furtig and R. Muller-
 Syring (eds), Ursachen gewaltformiger Konflikte in der Golfregion,
 (Peter Lang, Frankfurt, 1993), pp.199-209

xxxv 'The Politics and International Relations of the Middle East: an
 Outline of the Dynamics', in Hsu Cheng-Hsian (ed.), Zong Dong Yan Jiu
 Dao Lun (The Study of the Contemporary Middle East), (Sino-Arabian
 Publishers, Taipei, 1994), pp.41-75

xxxvi 'Regional Cooperation and Security in the Middle East: the Role of
 the European Community', in T. and J. Ismael (eds.), The Gulf War and
 the New World Order, (University Press of Florida, 1994), pp.116-131

xxxvii 'North-South Economic Relations in the Mediterranean', in R. Aliboni,
 G. Joffe and T. Niblock (eds), Security Challenges in the Mediterranean
 Region, (Frank Cass, London, 1996), pp. 115-136

xxxviii 'Islam and Ethnicity in Eastern Europe', in G. Nonneman, T. Niblock, and B.  Szajkowski (eds), Muslim Communities in the New Europe, (Ithaca Press,
 Reading, 1996), pp. 27-51

xxxix 'Na de Golfoolog : een nieuw Midden-Oosten?', in R. Doom and
 G. Nonneman (eds),  Het Midden Oosten, (VUP Press, Brussels, 1997),
 pp. 15-26

xl 'The Sanctions on Iraq : the Use of Peaceful Means to Uphold International
 Law or an Affront to Humanitarian Values?', in N. Adawy and B. Wharton (eds),
 Limerick Anthology of Arab Affairs, (University of Limerick Press, 1998),

xli 'The Arabs as Seen by Others : Does the United States See Arab Unity more
 Positively than the United States?' in I. Ubaydi (ed), Al-Qawmiyya al-Arabiyya
 wa al-Mustaqbal (Arab Nationalism and the Future), (Iraqi Academy, Baghdad,
 1998), pp.568-580

xlii 'Prospects for Cooperation between Europe and the Arab World: Creating a Framework which Recognises the Arab Regional Dimension', in Khasawnih, S., and Nielsen, J., Arabs and the West: Mutual Images, (Jordan University Press, 1999), pp. 99-114

xliii 'What would a Post-Saddam Iraq Look Like?', in McKnight, S., Partrick, N., and Toase, F., Gulf Security: Opportunities and Challenges for the New Generation, (Royal United Services Institute, London, 2000), pp.47-49

xliv 'Libyan Foreign Policy', in Ehteshami, A., and Hinnebusch, R. (eds.), The Foreign Policies of Middle East States, (Lynne Rienner, Boulder, 2002), pp.213-234

xlv ‘Sudanese-British Relations 1989-2001: Between the EU and the US’, in Hasan, Y.F. and Al-Sid, A. (eds), Sudanese-British Relations, (Khartoum University Press, 2000), pp.91-100

xlvi ‘British-Libyan Relations 1951-2001: Between Cooperation and Conflict’, in Temimi, A. and Omri, M (eds), La Grande Bretagne et le Maghreb (Fondation pour la Recherche Scientifique et l’Information, 2002), pp.175-88

xlvii ‘Introduction’ to Sulami, M., The West and Islam (Routledge, London, 2003), pp.1-3
xlviii   ‘Civil Society in the Middle East”, in Choueiri, Y., (ed), A Companion to the History of the Middle East (Blackwell, Oxford, 2005), pp.486-503

xlix    ‘Saudi Arabia’s Economy: the Challenge of Reform’, jointly with Monica Malik, in Nonneman, G. (ed.), State and Economy in Saudi Arabia (Hurst, London, 2005), pp.85-110
 l         ‘Prospects of Political and Economic Reform in Saudi Arabia’, in Zviagelskaya, I. (ed.), The Middle East: Essays in Honour of Professor Vitaly Naumkin (Oriental Studies Publishers, Moscow, 2005), pp.129-147, in Russian
li        ‘Globalization as Economic Phenomenon: a Critical Interpretation’, in Fox, J, Mourtada-Sabbah, N., and al-Mutawa, M. (eds.), Globalization and the Gulf (Routledge, London, 2006), pp.90-106
lii ‘Globalisation and the Saudi Economy: Gains and Losses’, in Guazzone, L., and Pioppi, D. (eds), The Arab State and Neo-Liberal Globalisation (Ithaca Press, Reading, 2009), pp.159-184
liii ‘China’s Growing Involvement in the Gulf: the Geopolitical Significance’, in Shen, F., and Blanchard, J (eds), Multidimensional Diplomacy of Contemporary China (Lexington Books, New York, 2010), pp.207-232
liv ‘China’s Intensifying Relationship with Saudi Arabia’, with Norafidah Ismail, in Shen, F., and Blanchard, J (eds), Multidimensional Diplomacy of Contemporary China (Lexington Books, New York, 2010), pp.233-253
lv ‘Arab Sovereign Wealth Funds’, with Sara Bazoobandi, in Legrenzi, M., and Momani, B (eds), The Shifting Geo-Economic Power of the Gulf (Ashgate, London, 2011), pp.127-142
lvi ‘Introduction’ to Boom amid Gloom: the Spirit of Possibility in the 21st Century Gulf (Ithaca Press, London, 2011), pp.xi-xx.
lvii ‘The Arab Spring: Explainng the Uprisings and Predicting the Impact on the Arab States of the Gulf’, in The Arab Spring: its Origins, Implications and Outlook’ (New Zealand Institute for International Affairs, Wellington, 2011), pp.93-110.

lviii ‘Explaining the Arab Uprisings and Predicting Their Future Course’, in Mulrooney, D (ed), The Situation in West Asia and North Africa and its Impact on the International Strategic Configuration (Institute for Security and Development Policy, Stockholm, 2012), pp. 20-34.

lvix ‘Southeast Asia and the Gulf: Conversion and Competition in the Wider Asian Context’, in MEI Singapore, Asia and the Gulf (Middle East Institute Singapore, The Singapore Middle East Papers), pp. 3-22.


(d) Journal Articles

i 'The Politics of Economic Aid: Motives and Objectives', in
 International Relations, vol.III, no.8, November 1969, pp.550-564

ii Tanzanian Foreign Policy: an Analysis', in The African Review,
 vol.1, no.2, September 1971, pp.91-101

iii 'A New Political System in Sudan' in African Affairs, vol.XV, no.4,

iv 'Tanzania and the Two Germanies: an Analysis of the Crisis in
 Relations 1964-5', in The Sudan Journal of Economic and Social
 Studies, vol.I, no.1, Summer 1974, pp.23-32

v 'Tajrabah al-Hal al-Silmi li-Qadayah Janub al-Sudan', (The Experience
 in Achieving Peaceful Settlement to the Southern Sudan Problem), in
 Al-Siyasah al Dawliyah (Cairo), no.41, July 1975, pp.114-129

vi 'Oil, Political Change and the Social Dynamics of the Arab Gulf States',
 in The Arab Gulf Journal, vol.5, no.1, April 1985, pp.37-46

vii 'Sudan: the Economic Basis of a Strategic Problem', in The Arab
 Researcher, no.3, April 1985, pp.29-36

viii 'Sudan's Economic Nightmare', in Merip Reports, in no.135, Sept. 1985,

ix 'The Transformation in Arab Politics', in The Arab Researcher, no.18,
 Jan-March 1989, pp.43-8

x 'Rushdie and Euro-Islamic Relations', in The Arab Researcher, no.19,
 April-June 1989, pp.53-7

xi 'The Need for a New Arab Order', in Middle East International,
 no.385, October 1990, pp.17-18

xii 'Britain and the Crisis in the Gulf', Bulletin of the Institute of
 Middle Eastern Studies (Japan), no.5, 1991, pp.27-52

xiii 'Divided they fight', Sanity, January 1991, pp.14-15

xiv 'The European Community and Regional Cooperation/Integration in the
 Middle East', in Journal of Arab Affairs, Spring, 1993, vol.12, no.1,

xv 'Islam and Ethnicity in Eastern Europe', in  Balkan Forum: International
 Journal of Politics, Economics and Culture (Skopje), September 1993,
 no.4, pp.167-188

xvi 'Dirasa muqarana li-l-'alaqat al-Misriyya al-Sudaniyyah (Sudanese-
 Egyptian Relations: A Comparative Study), in The Arab Researcher, no.34,
 1994, pp.19-22

xvii 'Democratisation: a Theoretical and Practical Debate', in British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, November 1998, vol.25, no.2, pp. 221-235
xviii 'Irak, Libye, Soudan: Efficacite des Sanctions?', in Politique Etrangere, Spring 2000, vol.65, no.1, pp. 95-108

xix ‘The Regional and Domestic Political Consequences of Sanctions Imposed on Iraq, Libya and Sudan’, in Arab Studies Quarterly, Autumn 2001, vol.23, no.4, pp.59-67

xx ‘Economic Sanctions and Human Rights’, in Journal of Social Affairs, Fall 2001, vol.18, no.71, pp.11-34

xxi ‘Sanctions and Pariahhood: the Case of Sudan’, in Journal of Middle Eastern and African Studies, 2002, vol.1, no.1, 1-23

xxii ‘Al-Muslimun fi Britania: al-Hawiya wa al-Dawlah’ (Muslims in Britain: Identity and the State), in Al-Mustaqbal, 2002, vol.283, no.9, pp.108-116

xxiii ‘Reform and Reconstruction in the Middle East: Room for EU-US Cooperation’, in The International Spectator (Rome), 2003, no.4, pp. 47-58

xxiv     ‘L’Alliance  Americano-Saoudienne: La Crise est-elle Depasse?’ (The Saudi-US Alliance: Has the Crisis Passed?) , in Maghreb-Mashreq, Spring 2006, no. 187, pp.69-84

xxv      ‘The US-Saudi Alliance: a Crisis Overcome’, in Journal of Social Affairs, Spring 2006, vol.23, no.89, pp.41-62 (translated version of the above-mentioned Maghreb-Mashreq article)

xxvi ‘Saudi Arabia’s Economic Development: Ambitious Visions, Difficult Dilemmas’, in Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies (Shanghai), October 2008, vol.2, no.2, pp.13-29.

xxvii ‘Southeast Asia and the Gulf: Convergence and Competition in the Wider Asian Context’, The Singapore Middle East Papers, Spring 2012, vol.1, pp. 1-15.

(e) Review articles

i 'More Light on Sudan's Civil War', in African Today, vol.23, no.2,
 April-June 1976, pp.87-90

ii 'Sudan Today', in Gazelle Review of Literature on the Middle East,
 no.4, 1978, pp.119-124

(f) Book reviews

 I have reviewed widely in such journals as International Affairs, 
 Journal of Development Studies, Gazelle Review, Third World
 Quarterly, Arab Gulf Journal etc., and have contributed articles to
 many newspapers, including The Guardian, The Financial Times, and the
 New Statesman.

(g) Official reports

i 'Political and Economic Assessment of Sudan', report published by
 Oxford Analytica, 1982, 60pp.


i 'The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Dispute, 1896-1948, in Exeter
 Tapes, January 1980

ii 'The Development of the Arab-Israeli Dispute, 1948-67', in Exeter
 Tapes, March 1980


Research Supervision

Among the topics which I have supervised PhD theses on, through to successful completion, in the years since 2006, have been:

Political Culture in Libya

Female Labour in Saudi Arabia

Legal Changes and Marriage Practices: a Study of Polygamous Marriages in the Meccan Region

The Role of Women in Society: a Case Study of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia

Ethno-Cultural Diversity and the State in the Middle East: the Experience of the Armenian Communities in Lebanon and Syria

The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Performance Management Reform in Egypt

Israeli-Palestinian Contact Experience since the Oslo Agreement

The Discourse and Performance of the Saudi Sunni Islamist Reformist Leadership, 1981-2003

The Muslim Brotherhood and the Mubarak Regime

Comparing Western Liberal Democracy and Islamic Shura: the Case of Hasan al-Turabi

British-Saudi Relations, 1939-1956

The Ulama and the State in Saudi Arabia

Democratisation in Palestine: the Case of the Palestinian Legislative Assembly