Policy Exchange is the hub where we present the implications of our research for engagement, dissemination and impact.


Three ways to encourage policy learning

In a guest post on the foremost Public Policy website, CEG’s Claire A. Dunlop and Claudio M. Radaelli discuss how to use insights from the Policy Learning literature to think about how to learn effectively or adapt to the processes of ‘learning’ in policymaking that are more about politics than education. The full paper has been submitted to the series for Policy and Politics called Practical Lessons from Policy Theories.

Read post here.


Generations come together to discuss Brexit and the UK’s future in Europe

On Thursday 29 June, an event which brought together retired/semi-retired citizens as well as secondary school aged children, ‘Brexit: A discussion of the UK’s future in Europe’, took place at the University of Exeter in the Innovation Centre.

The aim of this session was to draw together members of The University of the Third Age (U3A) and secondary school aged children from Years 8 and 9 to discuss the practicalities of Brexit and the UK’s relationship with the EU, focusing on the role of the community in British politics and the respective advantages and disadvantages of disbanding the longstanding connection between the domestic and supranational level. The session was led by Dr Sarah Cooper, Lecturer in Politics within the College of Social Sciences and International Studies, in collaboration with the Political Studies Association (PSA). 

Find out more.


Professors Radaelli and Dunlop on panel for Global RIA award

In early 2017, the Global RIA Awards were launched to identify and recognise innovate and impactful use of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA)  in developing countries. The emphasis of the reward is on the actual practices and impacts of RIAs (as opposed to the design of the supporting institutions and guidelines supporting the RIA system.) In June 2017, a panel consisting of World Bank staff and academics from the University of Exeter selected winners from ArmeniaBrazil and Bosnia & Herzegovina, along with several honourable mentions. Find out more.


European Dialogue on Internet Governance

Alison Harcourt is organising a panel at Eurodig the Human Rights of the Internet of Things. She is speaking on a panel with Jari Arkko (chair of the IETF) and Peter Kimpian (Article 29 WP). Her talk covers standard making in self-regulatory fora working on IoT with focus on the IEEE’s P2413 group, the IETF’s LPWAN and Thing-to-Thing T2T WG and the W3C’s Web of Things WG. This talk is a part of the ESRC funded project 'International Professional Fora: a study in civil society participation in internet governance'. Representatives and decision-makers of the industry will be discussants.


 

Research Session for the Regulatory Scrutiny Board of the Commission: A new format for engagement and co-production of knowledge

Brussels, 2 May 2017. The Centre for European Governance (CEG) organized the first-ever research session with the European Commission’s Regulatory Scrutiny Board (RSB) and officers of the Secretariat General of the Commission working on impact assessment. The RSB is the body that exercises regulatory oversight on the impact assessments supporting the proposals of the Commission and on the quality of legislative evaluation. At the event Professors Claire Dunlop and Claudio Radaelli brought together researchers from six European universities to present their most important inter-disciplinary findings and discuss challenging topics in the field of regulatory quality and EU law-making. All this in usable, concise and ‘distilled’ format. The RSB session was promoted by the research project Protego, funded by the European Research Council for the period 2016-2020.

Anne Bucher, Chair of the Regulatory Scrutiny Board said: “The Juncker Commission has set an ambitious Better Regulation agenda. The Regulatory Scrutiny Board seeks to ensure that policy makers can benefit from strong evidence coming from impact assessments and retrospective evaluations. I welcome today's  meeting with some of Europe's top researchers in the field as it has shown that we have a lot in common to deepen our understanding of evaluation methodologies and to explore new and relevant issues”.

For Claire and Claudio, the value of such exchanges goes beyond raising awareness about academic research “it generates usable knowledge and creates the preconditions for co-production of knowledge. This is what a regulatory conversation looks like, we hope to carry on with other research sessions in the near future”.


 

ESRC workshop on Decision-making in Standard Developing Organisations for the Internet

The workshop, organized on 25 April 2017 is part of a three year project entitled ‘International Professional Fora’ funded by the UK’s Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) conducted by Alison Harcourt at the University of Exeter (principle investigator), co-investigators George Christou (University of Warwick) and Seamus Simpson (University of Salford) and post-doctoral Fellow, Imir Rashid (Exeter). The project aims to shed new light on decision-making in international standard developing organisations (SDOs) with no formal state involvement. Speakers represented a wide range of stakeholders from industry, academia and regulatory bodies who addressed challenges and opportunities raised by SDO decision-making. The workshop focussed on the influence of the state, IGOs and civil society on decision-making in standard developing organisations in the morning. Two key issues emerged from discussions: increased internationalisation, moving goal posts and high barriers of entry for civil society and differences in approach between Europe and the US.

The afternoon break-out sessions dealt with privacy/security, mobile communications standards, and Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), key topics highlighted by the project’s stakeholder survey last year. SDO decision-making is currently facing substantial challenges. Problems of security, the pace of technological development, internationalisation, and IPR cut across all on-going work. Security, particularly pervasive monitoring, became a core issue for SDOs post-Snowden and also from demands for interoperability for IoT. The number of working groups within SDOs dealing with aspects of security issues have increased dramatically in recent years. At the same time, the speed of technical developments, e.g. continuous release of ever-green browsers coupled with the demand for integrated features, has fragmented decision-making. Speakers provided examples of the ‘living standard’ and QUIC within the W3C and IETF respectively. IPR has always been contentious within SDOs but has gained in salience due to the increase in the need for Standard Essential Patents (SEPs) over time.


 

Talking Policy Impact with Italian Social Scientists

An intense debate about the impact of academic research on society has been going on in the UK for the past decade. Yet, asking how we can get evidence into policy-making and the limits of academic impact are also widely discussed in other countries. Professors Claire Dunlop and Claudio Radaelli, of the Centre for European Governance, recently shared their experiences of impact at a roundtable event at the Politecnico di Milano organised by the Public Policy Section of the Italian Political Science Association on 17 March 2017. Claire presented a unique analysis of the REF2014 Politics and International Studies impact cases which show a remarkable vitality and variation in how UK political science makes a difference across the world. Claudio presented the Politics case study he authored for REF2014 on shaping thinking about regulation in international organizations. The two presentations were followed by comments provided by the stalwarts of engagement and impact in Italy.

For Claire ‘demonstrating your research has benefitted society is one of the key challenges facing academics. Having the opportunity to compare the dilemmas, pitfalls and successes of having an impact with colleagues from Italy provided valuable strategies and lessons we can put to use in our future work’. Professor Giancarlo Vecchi, who chaired and organised the session together with Professor Giliberto Capano, said: ‘The comparison with the UK debate and the analysis presented are a relevant contribution to the Italian reflection. Public policy studies and social sciences researchers need to improve their impact on policy making, and this is a strong focus even for a technologic university as the Politecnico di Milano. This roundtable gave us some useful suggestions for criteria to add to our research prizes and research incentives; at the same time, it has been a good starting point to develop ideas about how to organize lectures regarding the role of researchers to foster knowledge utilization in policy making’.


 

Conference 'The relationship of the EU and UK in the Future of Data Protection and Privacy Policy', Portcullis House, London

 The conference was run as part of the research project ‘The UK Communication Industries: the impact of a proposed UK Brexit from the EU’ led by Professor Alison Harcourt at the University of Exeter, which is funded by the ‘UK in a Changing Europe’ programme based at King’s College London. It is the second of a series of conferences on the future of the Digital Single Market following stakeholder workshops earlier in the year. Drawing on key issues highlighted by the stakeholder workshops, this conference dealt with implementation of the GDPR, revision of the ePrivacy Directive and issues around the future of Fintech and virtual currencies.

The speakers represented a wide range of stakeholders from industry, academia and regulatory bodies who addressed challenges and opportunities raised by Brexit. EU Member States are currently implementing the GDPR, the European Commission has released a proposal to revise the ePrivacy Directive in January 2017 and the Payment Services Directive II is to come into force (including in the UK) in January 2018 under which certain powers have been delegated to the European Banking Authority. Speakers raised a number of key issues: it was confirmed that the GDPR must be implemented by May 2018 in the UK despite the Brexit vote. The future relationship with the European Data Protection Board (EDPB) is yet unsure. Much of the discussion surrounded adequacy post-Brexit. There was concern that the UK’s new Investigatory Powers Act will not pass the adequacy test particularly post the Court of Justice’s Judgment in Joined Cases C - 203/15 and C - 698/15 decided on December 21st 2016 which states that “General and indiscriminate retention” of emails and electronic communications is not legal. At the same time, the EU’s manner of granting adequacy to third countries is seen as vulnerable under WTO trade laws. Company representatives pointed to inconsistencies between different jurisdictions and difficulties in implementation. 

Other clips from the event can be seen here.


 

Conference: 'The relationship of the EU and the UK in the future of the Digital Single Market', House of Commons (London)

On the 11 November 2016, Professor Alison Harcourt organised a conference at the House of Common on the future of the UK and the Digital Single Market. The conference was run as part of the research project ‘The UK Communication Industries: the impact of a proposed UK Brexit from the EU’ led by Professor Alison Harcourt at the University of Exeter, which is funded by the ‘UK in a Changing Europe’ programme based at King’s College London. This conference addressed cross-border broadcasting, online services, copyright law and content provision in the wake of Brexit. Clips from the event as well as interviews with the speakers were filmed and can be found here. The conference was hosted by four members of Parliament and attended by industry, civil service and third sector representatives. Findings were considered by the European Scrutiny Committee’s.

The speakers represented a wide range of stakeholders from industry, academia and regulatory bodies who addressed challenges and opportunities raised by Brexit. Two key challenges were identified: the loss of a UK voice within the EU policy-making and the Country of Origin (COO) principle which is embedded in many DSM Directives and Regulations. If the UK does not join the Single Market, broadcasters based in the UK may have to move their headquarters to an EU Member State and away from the UK to access EU markets post-Brexit. This is because cross-border broadcasting in Europe operates on the one-stop-shop Country of Origin (COO) principle which allows services to be provided in another EU Member State without restrictions. The COO is coupled with extensive requirements in relation to companies’ operations which are embedded into Directives such as SatCab and the AVMSD. It was noted that the COO principle was to be extended to the EU’s current copyright and geo-blocking proposals. The Council of Europe’s potential role in addressing cross-border broadcasting was discussed and the point was raised that, in 2009, the EU claimed exclusive competence in many of the areas covered by the CoE Convention on Transfrontier Television (CTT). The CTT has subsequently not been updated and 7 EU members, in any case, never signed due to Member States’ concern about overlapping competences.

Speakers discussed the importance of: tariff free for goods for film and other content exports; freedom of movement for temporary and long term workers in the sector in order to maintain the talent pipeline with definition of creative industry roles as ‘highly skilled workers’; continued UK/EU cooperation on intellectual property protection. Currently, the definition of ‘European works’ under AVMSD refers to works originating in European third States party to the European Convention on Transfrontier Television of the Council of Europe which include the UK. However, the reference to the CTT may disappear during the AVMS Directive’s current revision. If the UK does not join the Single Market, UK-produced content will be excluded from national quotas in favour of EU-produced content in catalogues and channels. This means that programming produced by UK based companies will no longer be considered of ‘European origin’ for services such as Netflix which is based in the Netherlands and other traditional and online broadcasters based in EU Member States. Speakers discussed the shape of alternative trade models with the EU post-Brexit and whether the UK needed to either continue to participate in EU funding schemes for content or national level measures needed to be put in place too. Views were exchanged on emerging markets such as extension of EU directives to new platforms such as mobile phones and VR headsets.


 

Doctoral student at hearing at the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Italian Parliament

Wednesday 6 July 2016: our doctoral student Laura Harth spoke at a hearing of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Italian Parliament on the right to know. Laura is funded by the South West Doctoral Training Centre with a collaborative ESRC scholarship. She is supervised by Claudio Radaelli and Claire Dunlop. The hearing gave MPs the opportunity to learn about the campaign of the Nonviolent Radical Party for the universal transition towards the Rule of Law and the recognition of the Human Right to Know by the United Nations. Participants included Franco Fratini, President of the Societa Italiana per l’Organizzazione Internazionale and former Minister of Foreign Affairs; Giulio Maria Terzi di Sant’Agata, President of the Global Committee for the Rule of Law and former Minister of Foreign Affairs; Matteo Angioli, Secretary General of the Global Committee for the Rule of Law; Maurizio Turco, Treasurer of the Nonviolent Radical Party; and Sergio D’Elia, Secretary General of Hands Off Cain.

The Foreign Affairs Committee is chaired by Hon. Fabrizio Cicchitto who introduced the hearing with words of praise for the late Marco Pannella and words of encouragement for the campaign. Several MPs strongly endorsed the campaign, among them Gea Schiro, Khalid Chaouki and Edmondo Cirielli.

Laura, who spoke in perfect Italian, said: “I stressed the importance of the Right to Know as an autonomous right, essential to the full application of the Rule of Law also in democratic systems. I also argued that citizens should have the opportunity to ‘know more about the right to know’ because this affects their daily lives as shown by the findings of the Chilcot Inquiry, which for us is the symbol of what happens when the right to know is denied. Finally I informed the MPs of the scholarship granted by the SWDTC and thanked Exeter and my supervisors for the opportunity to study this topic scientifically, with a PhD thesis in political science’.

The entire hearing was broadcast live and is now available in the archive of Radio Radicale, in Italian. Read more.


 

Politics academic runs natural environment management workshop with Scottish decision makers

Dr Duncan Russel ran a workshop, with colleagues from the University of East Anglia and the James Hutton Institute, which brought together a range of representatives Scottish organisations responsible for managing the natural environment.

The workshop drew on findings from Dr Russel’s work on the UK National Ecosystem Assessment Follow-on Project to explore barriers and sticking points to embedding knowledge about the value of the natural environment in decision-making. It then considered how these barriers can be overcome to facilitate the implementation of the New Scottish Land Use Strategy.

Dr Russel said, 'our research provides important lessons for improving the management of the natural environment. This workshop provided an excellent opportunity to work with key decision makers in Scotland to start thinking about how our findings can be used to enhance their implementation of key natural environment policy goals.'


 

CEG meetings with World Bank officers

Last week the World Bank organised a set of six meetings between Claudio Radaelli and different WB officers, to discuss the lessons drawn from his recent projects on regulation and discuss ways to generate co-creation of knowledge during the next months. Claudio also gave a presentation at the brown bag seminar series in the Global Governance Practice series last Wednesday.

The trip was funded by the ESRC impact acceleration fund (grant for impact cultivation awarded to Claudio and Claire Dunlop). See a dozen photos from Claudio's phone at our FaceBook page.


 

MPA student publishes op-ed article in the Jakarta Post

MPA student Arif Budy Pratama has published an op-ed article, 'Nudging and regulating', in the Indonesian National Newspaper, The Jakarta Post, on 15 April 2016.

Arif was inspired by the lecturers on the MPA programme and through his article is hoping to introduce an alternative to the government in shaping public policy in Indonesia.

Read the article here.

Arif Budy Pratama is a Chevening scholar, studying for a Master’s degree in public administration at Exeter.


 

Exeter alumnus in Foreign Affairs: Breaking Congo’s Glass Ceiling

Exeter and CSSIS alumnus Tom O’Bryan (2013) has published an article with Foreign Affairs magazine titled "Breaking Congo's Glass Ceiling: Gender Politics in the DRC."

Tom’s article profiles the activists, advocates and political candidates leading the fight for increased gender equality in Congolese politics, as the country once again approaches a time of great uncertainty and instability. Read more.


 

Guiding policy communication: Moving beyond ‘Elf and Safety’s gone mad’

Dr Claire Dunlop has been awarded an ESRC Impact Acceleration Accont Project Co-Creation award. Her project builds on previous collaboration between Claire and the >Health and Safety Executive researching health and safety ‘myths’. This project will develop sector-specific training resources, guidance and evaluation materials with which the HSE can inform and reform practice in three key policy sectors where health and safety myths dominate, and evaluate how the different ways of constructing and communicating health and safety messages affects perceptions of those messages among key audiences. The results will enable the HSE to reframe how it communicates its message on myths to key groups.


 

Understanding ‘Independence’ in a complex regulatory context —
Madalina Busuioc addresses the management board of the European Food Safety Authority

Co-production of knowledge is about working with regulatory bodies and stakeholders and critically engage them on the aims and social expectations about EU regulation. A key yet contested concept is ‘independence’: what does it mean today? How should a public regulatory body try to pursue independence, while still being responsive to its stakeholders? In December 2015, Dr Madalina Busuioc (Centre for European Governance, Lecturer in Politics) was invited to give an expert talk on ‘Independence’ in Parma (IT) before the management board of the European Food Safety Authority, European Union's chief scientific and regulatory body for food safety. Madalina has published widely on the promises and pitfalls of various approaches to accountability and transparency.

In her talk, Madalina argued for tailored and conscious institutional approaches to independence, for the adoption of arrangements that are 'fit for purpose' (as opposed to blanket solutions), reinforced and aligned with agency needs, mission and key audience expectations. The talk was followed by a reflective session with the audience. The audience included EFSA's Management Board, the Executive Director, the Head of the Legal Office and other key agency staff as well as the Director-General of DG SANCO of the European Commission and his Head of Unit responsible for 'Relations with Agencies and Advisory Groups'. EFSA is in the process of revising their institutional policy on independence.


 

Setting the agenda for the right to know

A human rights conference held at the Italian Parliament at the end of July heard from Professor Claudio Radaelli, head of the Centre for European Governance, and Laura Harth, a PhD student at Exeter. Laura was deputy project coordinator for this international event in Rome, dedicated to the universality of human rights and the right to know.

Ministers, MEPs, and human right activists from Europe (France, Iceland, UK and the Netherlands), the MENA region and Asia, were among those who attended the conference, which was supported by the Italian Foreign Affairs Department. The Italian foreign minister, Paolo Gentiloni, provided a passionate endorsement of the political initiative to establish the right to know at the United Nations, just before Professor Radaelli took the floor to speak about research at Exeter on policy instruments, accountability and the control of corruption, including Laura’s PhD project on the emerging right to know, which extends this research. Laura took the floor for the last session, reading to the assembly a new declaration on the right to know signed by all the participants.

Listen to Claudio’s presentation (English Translation)

Right to know - Read the conference programme.



Doctoral student, Jonathan Kamkhaji, has worked on a WB assignment in Botswana concerning regulatory reform and business climate

A fundamental aim of the Centre for European Governance is to engage with policy reform agendas in government and international organisations and to produce ‘usable knowledge’. In this context the Centre has developed links with the World Bank over the years and produced scientific papers for their regulatory reform programmes — as evidenced by our REF-2014 submission. This academic year one of our doctoral students, Jonathan Kamkhaji, has worked on a WB assignment in Botswana concerning regulatory reform and business climate.

Why our Centre and why this particular student? First, Jonathan has a background in both economics and political science, having studied for a PhD in economics in Turku before moving to Exeter. At the Centre for European Governance, Jonathan worked as research fellow in an Advanced Grant of the European Research Council on regulatory governance and learning, developing methodological skills in coding, analysing, appraising regulatory impact assessments — as well as communicating research findings to different audiences.

Whilst the WB is not short of consultants, consultancy firms typically propose a standard repertoire of solutions to the problem of the client. In this case however the problem was one of triggering a process of reform rather than ‘selling a tool’. Jonathan — with a senior officer from the WB — engaged the stakeholders of regulatory reform in a process of learning involving dialogue, capacity building, and co-creation of know-how. Upon completion of this assignment, the government of Botswana has endorsed the wider follow-up strategy suggested by the team.



Engaging the Public in Busting Euro-Myths

Claire Dunlop and Claudio Radaelli — two political scientists at the Centre for European Governance — hosted a public engagement event which brought together Elisabeth Sweeney of the European Parliament’s Information Office and members of Exeter’s University of the 3rd Age (U3A) to explore situations where we wrongly believe that the European Union (EU) is responsible for initiatives that come from other places — for example, regulations that come from other international institutions or from our government. These have become known as ‘Euro-myths’.

The event, on Friday 27th March 2015, was inspired by research our political scientists are carrying out into the impact of Euro-Myths on the UK debate about membership of the European Union (EU). Claudio said: “We shared views about the EU, but also memories of post-war Europe. It wasn’t the classic talk, but a genuine exchange, exploring together the fundamental reasons that bind us together in a community of peace where human rights, rule of law and free markets are protected by institutions. Democracy is in crisis at the level of the nation-state, and has not yet materialized at the level of the EU. This is the challenge — everything else is the politics of myths, nostalgia and fear”.

Elisabeth said: “Despite the UK having been a member of the EU since 1973 there seems to be a general knowledge gap about how the EU functions. The session with the U3A and the European Parliament Information Office at Exeter University was a valuable opportunity to explore some of the reasons for this. The lack of an information campaign by the government, limited learning in schools as well as misrepresentation or lack of interest to cover EU stories by the Media have all led to Euro-myths taking hold. A very engaged U3A audience made for a lively and interactive session which covered a wide range of issues relating to the role of the UK government and Parliamentary scrutiny committees and the role of elected MEPS in EU decision making."

Carol McCullough of the Exeter U3A University Liaison Team said: “75 members of Exeter U3A had the opportunity to engage with both academic staff of the University of Exeter and a representative from the Information Office of the European Parliament in London. We had a stimulating and informative session which gave us a clear insight into how wary we should be of the myths about the EU which are peddled in our national press, particularly in this election year”.

Funding for the event came from the Jean Monnet Chair in Political Economy awarded to Professor Radaelli for the period 2015-2017.

Listen to Claudio’s remarks: https://clyp.it/di0lvh4j

Access Elisabeth Sweeney's presentation.


 

From experiment to institutionalization? The Spitzenkandidaten procedure in the European Union, January 2015

The new procedure for the appointment of the President of the European Commission spawned a lively debate across Europe

Further to the key note speech delivered by Prof. Shackleton at the summer school on European Integration organised by the University of Agder (UiA, Kristiansand, Norway), our PhD candidate Roberto Baldoli developed a short commentary with Shackleton himself and Dr Stefan Gänzle (University of Agder). The commentary was published by the leading think tank on European public policy, CEPS, based in Brussels. Now Roberto shares with our readers an extended analysis, interpreting the Spitzenkandidaten procedure as the institutionalisation of 'best practice', as well as possible way forward for the implementation of article 17(7) of the Lisbon Treaty.

Our staff has contributed to the UiA summer school on European Integration since 2011.


 

Study uncovers the reasons behind health and safety myths, January 2015

New research from the University of Exeter uncovers the complex range of factors that contribute to the incorrect use of health and safety.

Dr Claire Dunlop analyses the first two years of submissions to the Health and Safety Executive’s (HSE) Myth Busters Challenge Panel (MBCP) — 272 cases in all. Set up in April 2012, the Panel allows members of the public to challenge incorrect or over the top decisions taken in the name of health and safety by non-regulators — such as employers, health and safety consultants, insurance companies, leisure companies, retailers, schools and so on. It concludes that the rise of health and safety myths in the UK cannot be attributed to a single cause or combination of causes. Rather, the research uncovers a complex range of factors that recur in the incorrect use of health and safety.

Read more.


 

Engaging the Public and Policy-Makers in Busting Health and Safety Myths, December 2014

Politics Senior Lecturer Dr Claire Dunlop hosted a public engagement event which brought together civil servants from the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and members of Exeter’s University of the 3rd Age (U3A) to explore the roots of health and safety myths. Find out more.

Read the report

Access Dr Dunlop’s presentation.

Access the HSE’s presentation.


 

Lawmaking and smart regulation, Feitura das Leis, November 2014

Professor Claudio Radaelli travelled to Portugal to present a major report on lawmaking to the Portuguese Parliament.. The report on lawmaking and smart regulation, Feitura das Leis, was inspired by ground-breaking research by the Centre for European Governance (CEG), and Professor Radaelli has advised on and contributed to all stages. It was presented to the Portuguese Parliament (Assembleia da República) on 28 November 2014 by Professor Radaelli and the report’s authors, a team of lawyers based at Nova University.

Feitura das Leis flyer

Feitura das Leis programme

Listen to the presentation By Claudio Radaelli below.


 

Launch of the OECD Framework for regulatory evaluation 17 June 2014, The Hague

  • Programme
  • Lead presentation by Dr Christiane Arndt, OECD
  • Supporting research paper by Radaelli and Fritsch
  • Presentation High-Level meeting in the The Hague, 2014 on the OECD framework on regulatory evaluation. Listen below.


 

UKAID — World Bank — Dutch Government Better Regulation for Growth Programme

The Better Regulation for Growth (BRG) Program is a joint initiative of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and FIAS, the investment climate advisory service of the World Bank Group.

Two expert papers were prepared by CEG:


 

Exeter Roundtable on the usage of social sciences in policy making, Exeter 2012