Photo of Dr Sandra Kröger

Dr Sandra Kröger

Senior Lecturer


01392 263285

I am interested in topics to do with democracy in the EU and with European integration. In my recent empirical research, I have Iooked at different forms of non-electoral forms of political representation, on the one hand, and the norms that can – or should – be underlying the institutional design of representative institutions in the EU, on the other. An on-going focus of my research is the role national parliaments can and should have in EU policy-making, and which institutional design can support the continued politicization of EU affairs in domestic arenas. I am increasingly interested in the topics of Euroscepticism and differentiated integration. Earlier research focused on the Open Method of Coordination (OMC), and particularly the governance architecture of the OMC inclusion and its application in France, Germany and at the EU-level.

In my teaching, which I greatly enjoy, I seek to involve students as much as possible as active agents of their learning, so as to develop critical, independent thinking as well as group and expression skills. This leads me to rely a lot on group discussions, role plays - both smaller ones and in the form of simulations - as well small research exercises in the class room. I was truly honoured, in 2016, to be the runner-up for the category 'Innovative teaching' in the UoE Teaching Awards.

Research interests

  • European integration and Europeanization
  • Democratic theory
  • Organised civil society
  • Parliaments in the EU
  • Euroscepticism
  • Differentiated integration

I have been involved in a number of projects on the Open Method of Coordination. I have also participated in a multi-lateral research project on European Social and Economic Governance in the EU, to which I contributed a study on Corporate Social Responsibility in the UK, Germany and the EU. More recent projects were concerned with political representation in the EU, in both electoral and non-electoral forms: I have edited a number of volumes and special issues, organised several conferences, workshops, sections and panels on the same topic and am also the convenor of the Standing Group on Political Representation with ECPR (jointly with Johannes Pollak). Of late, I have become more interested in the issues of differentiated integration and Euroscepticism and plan to focus my future research around these topics.

Any proposals of dissertations that focus on the above listed topics would be highly welcome.

Other information

Research funding

  • UoE Strategic Discretionary Fund, July 2016, £ 3.300
  • Fellow at the Hanse Wissenschaftskolleg Delmenhorst, 10/2013-04/2014.
  • Life Long Learning Programme, Jean Monnet Action, Key Activity 1, 'New trends in political representation in the EU – still democratic?', conference in Exeter, 24-26 May 2012 (39.538,50 Euro).
  • Marie Curie Fellowship for 24 months at the Department of Politics of the University of Exeter, September 2011-August 2013 (192.850 Euro).
  • Workshop 'Representation in the European Union: Coping with present challenges to democracy', Fritz-Thyssen Stiftung, 2010 (8.000 Euro).
  • Workshop 'The OMC within the Lisbon Strategy: Empirical assessments and theoretical implications', Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, 28.-30.11.2008 (10.000 Euro).
  • 2004-2007: Fellowship of the German Science Foundation, member of the doctoral programme 'The Future of the European Social Model', Georg-August University Göttingen.
  • 1999-2001: Fellowship of the Evangelisches Studienwerk Villigst e.V.
  • 1994-1999: Fellowship of the Evangelisches Studienwerk Villigst e.V.

Workshop organisation

Section Co-Chair (‘A problem-driven approach to political representation’) at the 11th ECPR General Conference, 6-9 September 2017, Oslo, as well as organiser of a panel (‘Representations of heterogeneity in the EU’).

Organisation of a panel on ‘The Conceptual Links between Differentiated Integration and Democratic Legitimacy in the EU’, ECPR-SGEU conference, Trento, 16-18 June 2016 (jointly with Richard Bellamy).

Organisation of a workshop on ‘The social deficit of the EU: Diagnosis and Implications’, 23 May 2016, University of Exeter.

Section Chair (‘Contemporary challenges to political representation’) at the 8th ECPR General Conference, 3-6 September 2014, Glasgow, as well as organizer of a panel (‘National parliaments in the EU’) in the same section.

Organisation of a workshop on ‘National Parliaments in EU policy-making’ at the Hanse-Wissenschaftskolleg Delmenhorst, 6-7 March 2014 (jointly with Richard Bellamy).

Organization of a conference ‘New trends in political representation in the EU – still democratic?’ 24-26 May 2012, University of Exeter.

Organization of ECPR joint session workshop on ‘The reconfiguration of political representation in the EU’ (jointly with Richard Bellamy), 10-15 April 2012, Antwerp.

Organization of a panel on ‘Governance and Democracy: Does one Preclude the Other?’ 6th General Conference of ECPR, 25-27 August 2011, Reykjavik.

Organization of a mini-symposium (three panels) on political representation at the Eighteenth International Conference of Europeanists (CES), 20-22 June 2011, Barcelona (jointly with Dawid Friedrich).

Organization of a workshop on ‘Representation in the European Union: Coping with present challenges to democracy’, 17-19 September 2010, Leuphana University of Lüneburg (jointly with Dawid Friedrich)

2009-2010: Organization of a discussion series ‘Social Europe: Actors and positions’, Haus der Bremischen Bürgerschaft, Bremen

Organization of authors’ workshops (Göttingen 2006, Vienna 2008)

Co-Founder and Coordinator of a younger researcher network on European governance



I have been at the University of Exeter since 2011, first as a Marie Curie fellow, then as a lecturer. I was promoted to Senior Lecturer in 2016.

I hold degrees in social science (Humboldt-University Berlin, Paris VIII) and Interdisciplinary France studies (University Freiburg). I did my PhD as part of the graduate programme ‘The Future of the European Social Model’ (supervisors: Prof. Ilona Ostner and Prof. Claus Offe). The dissertation addressed the Open Method of Coordination in the field of social inclusion and its implementation in France, Germany, and at the EU-level.

Between 2006-2008, I have lectured at the Georg-August University Göttingen and the Humboldt University Berlin in the fields of European social policy governance, poverty in the EU and European integration theory. From 2008-2011, and after five months at the Institute for European Integration Research in Vienna, I was a lecturer at the Jean Monnet Centre for European Studies,University of Bremen. From October 2013-April 2014, I was a fellow at the Hanse Wissenschaftskolleg (Delmenhorst).