Photo of  Richard Moyes

Richard Moyes

Honorary University Fellow

Richard Moyes is Managing Director and co-founder of the UK-based NGO Article 36.  He was a leading strategist in the development of the 2017 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, the 2015 Safe Schools Declaration and the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions.  He has written on risks for the artificial intelligence company DeepMind.  Moyes is a member of the governance boards of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN), which was awarded the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize, and of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, which was co-laureate of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1997.  He previously established and managed humanitarian landmine clearance and explosive ordnance disposal operations. 

He has degrees in History and in Social Anthropology from Gonville and Caius College Cambridge. 

Research interests

I work on weapons, armed violence, civil society coalitions and international humanitarian law:


NGO publications (written or co-authored)

2016 Key Elements of Meaningful Human Control, briefing paper to the CCW, Article 36, 2016.
2016 Meaningful Human Control, Artificial Intelligence and Autonomous Weapons, co-written with Dr. Heather Roff, briefing paper to the CCW, Article 36, 2016.
2014 Sex and drone strikes - Gender and identity in targeting and casualty analysis, co-written with Ray Acheson and Thomas Nash, Article 36 & Reaching Critical Will. 

2014 A treaty banning nuclear weapons: developing a legal framework for the prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons, co-written with Ray Acheson and Thomas Nash, Article 36 & Reaching Critical Will.
2013 Banning nuclear weapons, co-written with Maya Brehm and Thomas Nash, Article 36.
2013  Humanitarian consequences: short case study of the direct humanitarian impacts from a single nuclear weapon detonation on Manchester, UK, co-written with Phil Webber (Scientists for Global Responsibility) and Greg Crowther, Article 36.
2012 Impact of explosive weapons by gender and age – Iraq 2003-2011, research paper for Action on Armed Violence.
2010 Victims and survivors of armed violence: responding to rights and needs, background paper, Oslo Conference on Armed Violence, 20-22 April 2010, Action on Armed Violence for the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

2009 Explosive violence: the problem of explosive weapons, Landmine Action, London, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-8-8.

2009 Ambiguity in practice: benchmarks for the implementation of CCW Protocol V, co-written with Katie Harrison, Landmine Action.

2008, Joining the Convention on Cluster Munitions: a chance to save civilian lives, produced by Landmine Action in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

2008 Prohibiting cluster munitions: our chance to protect civilians, co-written with Greg Crowther, United Nations Development Programme, BCPR.

2007 Cluster munitions in Kosovo: analysis of use, contamination and casualties, Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-5-7.
2007 Campaign newsletter, four articles, Cluster munitions and remotely delivered landminesDumb cluster bomb policyA sensor fuzed solution? and Spiked!, Landmine Action, Autumn 2007, Issue 13.

2006 Anti-vehicle mines: managing the risk to humanitarian organisations, co-written with Greg Crowther for Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-4-0. 

2006 Failure to Protect: a case for the prohibition of cluster munitions, co-written with Dr. Brian Rappert for Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-1-9.

2006 Campaign newsletterFailure rates and the protection of civilians, Landmine Action, Summer 2006, Issue 12.

2005 Cluster munitions in Lebanon, co-written with Thomas Nash for Landmine Action, ISBN: 0-9536717-8-X.

2005 Campaign newsletterOut of balance, Landmine Action, Winter 2005, Issue 11.

2005 A study of scrap metal collection in Lao PDR, analysis and strategy recommendations for UNICEF, published by Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), Geneva.
2005 Campaign newsletterThe economics of risk, Landmine Action, Summer 2005, Issue 10.

2005 Formal and informal responses to ordnance contamination, research paper co-written with Dave Tinning commissioned by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), Geneva. 

2004 Humanitarian Impact from Mines Other Than Anti-Personnel Mines, Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), Geneva. 

2004 Tampering: Deliberate Handling and Use of Live Ordnance in Cambodia, Handicap International Belgium, Mines Advisory Group & Norwegian People’s Aid, Phnom Penh. 

2003, MAG Sri Lanka Project Report 2002, Mines Advisory Group Sri Lanka.

2002 Explosive Remnants of War: unexploded ordnance and post-conflict communities, Landmine Action, ISBN: 0-9536717-3-9. 

1999 “Landmines & Unexploded Ordnance,” chapter written by Richard Moyes & Steve Wilson for Safety First: Security Management for NGO Workers, Save the Children Fund (SCF), London. 
1999 MAG Global Activities Report, Mines Advisory Group (MAG).
1999 Lao PDR, Mines Advisory Group (MAG).
1998 Cambodia, Mines Advisory Group (MAG).
1998 northern Iraq, Mines Advisory Group (MAG).
1998 Namibia, Mines Advisory Group (MAG).
1997 Bosnia, as a contributor, Mines Advisory Group (MAG).
1997 MAG Global Activities Report, Mines Advisory Group (MAG).

1996 British Landmines, as research assistant, UK Working Group on Landmines.

Journal articles and book chapters

2016 Meaningful Human Control, in Robin Geiss ed. Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems: Technology, Definition, Ethics, Law and Security, Federal Foreign Office of Germany, 2016.

2016 Meaningful human control over individual attacks, in ICRC, Autonomous Weapon Systems:  Implications of Increasing Autonomy in the Critical Functions, expert meeting report, 2016.
2013 The roles of civil society in the development of standards around new weapons and other technologies of warfare, with Prof. Brian Rappert, Anna Crowe and Thomas Nash, in International Review of the Red Cross, Volume 94 / Issue 886 (June 2012), Cambridge Journals [pdf version]. 
2012 Looking Inwards and Looking Outwards - Specific Challenges and Strategic Directions from the Prohibition of Cluster Munitions, co-written with Prof. Brian Rappert, in Austrian Review of International and European Law, Vol 15, 89-108 (2010).
2012  The case for addressing explosive weapons: Conflict, violence and health, with Brian Rappert and Iain Lang, Social Science & Medicine 75 (2012) 2047-2054

2011 A New Agenda on Explosive Force, with Thomas Nash, Disarmament Times, Vol 34. no. 1, Summer 2011

2011 Statecrafting Ignorance: Strategies for managing burdens, secrecy, and conflict, with Prof. Brian Rappert and A.N.Other in Maret [ed.] Government Secrecy, Emerald Books 2011. 

2010 The Convention on Cluster Munitions: A Commentary, as a contributor, book edited by Gro Nystuen and Stuart Casey-Maslen, Oxford University Press.

2010 Enhancing the protection of civilians from armed conflict – precautionary lessons, with Prof. Brian Rappert in Medicine, Conflict and Survival, Vol.26 No.1, January-March 2010.

2009 The Prohibition of Cluster Munitions: Setting International Precedents for Defining Inhumanity, with Prof. Brian Rappert in The Nonproliferation Review, July 2009, Volume 16.2


Informal papers

2016 The need to ensure meaningful human control in the face of the weaponisation of robotics and artificial intelligence, written submission by Article 36 to the Science and Technology Committee inquiry into robotics and artificial intelligence, Article 36, 2016

2014, Global Coalitions, short article for the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) based on original report written with Thomas Nash.
2013, Banning nuclear weapons, short article in Peace in Progress, issue 16,  June 2013, International Catalan Institute for Peace [pdf version].
2013 Killer Robots:  UK Government Policy on Fully Autonomous Weapons, April 2013, With Laura Boillot, Maya Brehm and Thomas Nash for Article 36.
2012 Restarting Disarmament, co-written with Thomas Nash for OpenDemocracy, 4 May 2012 [pdf version].
2011 Responding to the Impact of Explosive Weapons, Peace in Progress, Issue 10, Sept 2011, International Catalan Institute for Peace [pdf version]
2011 The proposal for a nuclear weapons convention, Article 36 strategy note circulated June 2011, revised September 2011.
2009 IEDs and explosive violence - framing the humanitarian problem, presentation to the Group of Governmental Experts of Amended Protocol II of the UN Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Landmine Action.
2009 Explosive violence - Israel and Gaza, Landmine Action policy brief, 19 February 2009.
2006 Cluster munitions and public health, informal discussion paper.
2004 Stop Killing Civilians & Start Taking Responsibility: Searching questions regarding cluster munitions, discussion paper co-written with Dr. Brian Rappert for the Cluster Munition Coalition.

2004 Economic necessity in the mine action sector - a very short discussion paper, Richard Moyes, December 2004.


NGO publications (as editor) 

2010 A State of Ignorance: the UK Government's efforts to understand civilian deaths in Iraq, 2003-2009 by Prof. Brian Rappert.

2009 Banning Cluster Munitions: Government policy and practice, co-author/sub-editor, Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action. 

2008 [ed.] Counting the cost: the economic impact of cluster munition contamination in Lebanon, by Greg Crowther for Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-8-8.

2008 [ed.] A convention beyond the Convention, by Dr. Brian Rappert for Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-7-1. 

2008 [ed.] Cluster munitions: analysis of legal cases, by Stuart Maslen and Prof. Virgil Weibe, Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-6-4. 

2007 [ed.] M85: an analysis of reliability, by Colin King, Ove Dullum and Grethe Østern for Colin King Associates, Norwegian Defence Research and Norwegian Peoples Aid. 

2006 [ed.] with Simon Conway and Raza Shah Khan, Landmines and Islamic Teachings, by Dr. Quibla Ayaz and Dr. Miraj ul Islam Zia, Sustainable Peace and Development Organisation (SPADO), Pakistan. 

2006 [ed.] Foreseeable harm: the use and impact of cluster munitions in Lebanon – 2006, report by Thomas Nash for Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-3-3. 

2006 [ed.] Bosnia’s political landmines: a call for socially responsible and conflict sensitive mine action, report by Matt Bolton and Hugh Griffiths for Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-2-6. 

2005 [ed.] Out of Balance: UK Government efforts to understand cluster munitions and International Humanitarian Law, report by Dr. Brian Rappert for Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-0-2. 

2005 [ed.] Explosive remnants of war and mines other than anti-personnel mines: Global impact survey 2003-2004, edited and with an introduction by Richard Moyes for Landmine Action, Mines Action Canada, Actiongroup, London, ISBN: 0-9536717-9-8.



2012 – ongoing -- Managing Director, Article 36

Established Article 36, the world-leading not-for-profit organisation specialising on international law and policy to protect civilians from weapons.  The organisation pioneered the concept of a treaty prohibition on nuclear weapons and won the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize as part of the steering group of ICAN.  Article 36 is on the governance bodies of the major international coalitions concerned with developing and upholding protections from weapons.

  • Between 2013 and 2017, Moyes chaired 12 meetings of an informal group of diplomats and civil society partners that undertook strategic planning for the development of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.  Moyes presented as an invited expert during the final treaty negotiations.
  • Moyes facilitated drafting of the 2015 Safe Schools Declaration – an international policy instrument to protect education in conflict;
  • Developed the concept of ‘meaningful human control’, the leading policy formulation in efforts to curb autonomy in weapon systems;
  • Has continued to build engagement with the humanitarian impact of ‘explosive weapons in populated areas’, including through founding and leading the International Network on Explosive Weapons;
  • Established and leads Article 36’s partnership with the ethics and society project of DeepMind.

2011 -- Consultancies

  • Co-authored a resource book on international civil society campaigning (
  •  Undertook monitoring of landmine clearance and ordnance disposal operations in Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq for Norwegian People’s Aid.

2005 - 2010 -- Director of Policy & Research: Landmine Action (later AOAV)

Leading the development of policy and strategy towards a treaty prohibition on cluster munitions, violence reduction and recognition of the humanitarian impact of explosive weapons.

  • Leading role in research, policy development and political strategy to establish the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions.  Negotiated on behalf of the Cluster Munition Coalition on Article 2 (Definitions) within the Dublin Diplomatic Conference that adopted the treaty;
  • Supported the development the 2010 Oslo Commitments on Armed Violence;
  • Framed ‘explosive weapons in populated areas’ as a major humanitarian policy concern – creating new terms for understanding certain patterns of violence that were subsequently adopted by the UN Secretary-General and the International Committee of the Red Cross.
  • Co-Chair of the Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC), an international network of more than 300 civil society organisations that established an international ban on cluster bombs;
  • Member of the Editorial Board of the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor, a civil society initiative monitoring the 1997 Mine Ban Treaty and the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions.

2004 -- Consultancies

  • Researched and wrote a publication on the humanitarian impact of anti-vehicle mines, based primarily on research in Angola for the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD).
  • Coordinated and edited a global survey of the impact of explosive remnants of war and anti-vehicle mines for Landmine Action.
  • Led a Cambodian research team in a six-month project to analyse the prevalence, incidence, demographics and drivers of unexploded ordnance handling behaviour in rural communities of Cambodia for Handicap International Belgium, Mines Advisory Group and Norwegian People’s Aid.

2002 - 2004 -- Programme Manager, Sri Lanka: Mines Advisory Group (MAG)

Established and managed Mines Advisory Group’s explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) and landmine clearance project in Sri Lanka.

  • Undertook the first assessment of landmine clearance capacity and needs in the northern ‘Vanni,’ an area controlled by the Tamil Tigers (LTTE).
  • Established the first processes of international mine action assistance into this heavily mine and UXO contaminated area.
  • Supported the development of innovative working methodologies, including the use of rakes as manual demining tools.
  • Established the first external mine action assistance to LTTE-controlled areas of the eastern Province of Batticaloa, a region of very high political sensitivity.
  • Within two years the overall project had an annual budget of US$1.7 million and included community liaison, risk education and mechanical survey/verification assets, as well as EOD and technical survey teams.

2001 -- Consultancy

  • Researched and wrote a report on the social and economic impact of unexploded ordnance, including unexploded submunitions, on post conflict communities in Kosovo, Eritrea and Cambodia for Landmine Action.

2000 - 2001 -- Project Coordination Manager: Mines Advisory Group

Overall responsibility for project fundraising, grant management (30+ grants, total approx £15 million per annum), logistical and administrative support to field programmes and development of new project areas. Managed an eight-person team.

  • The project coordination section consisted of five staff coordinating landmine clearance and ordnance disposal projects in Angola, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, northern Iraq, Kosovo, Lao PDR, Lebanon, south Sudan and Vietnam.
  • The technical section consisted of three staff providing specialist support to projects on clearance methodologies, community liaison, risk education and trauma medicine.

1995 - 2000 -- Previous roles within Mines Advisory Group:

  • 1999 - Project Coordinator, Cambodia, Kosovo, northern Iraq:  Responsible for fundraising, grant management, logistics, general project coordination and operations development for landmine clearance and ordnance disposal operations.  Led assessment missions to Albania and Macedonia that provided the basis for establishing MAG’s mine action project in Kosovo. Undertook assessments of Namibian Police Explosive Unit capacity, and landmine and UXO contamination in northern Uganda.
  • 1995 - Information Coordinator:  Wrote a series of five reports on the impact of landmine and unexploded ordnance contamination based on research in Cambodia, Lao PDR, northern Iraq and Namibia.  Wrote MAG’s 1997 and 1999 Global Activities Reports.



2009 - ongoing -- University of Exeter

  • Honorary University Fellow, College of Social Sciences and International Studies (2011 - )
  • Honorary University Fellow, Centre of Advanced International Studies, Department of Politics (2009-2011)

1991 - 1995 -- University of Cambridge, Gonville & Caius College

  • M.Phil., Social Anthropology
  • M.A. (Cantab.), History 2.i, Senior Exhibition, 1993 & Honorary Senior Exhibition, 1994