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Dr Kubo Mačák

Associate Professor


01392 725607

Amory 104F

Dr Kubo Mačák is an Associate Professor at the Law School and a member of the Exeter Centre for International Law. He was appointed as a Lecturer in 2013, Senior Lecturer in 2016, and Associate Professor in 2019. He also led the mooting programme at Exeter Law School from 2013 to 2016.

Kubo’s research interests span general international law, international humanitarian law, and the law of cyber security. He is the author of Internationalized Armed Conflicts in International Law (Oxford University Press 2018). His work has been published in journals including the International Review of the Red Cross, the Journal of Conflict and Security Law, the Leiden Journal of International Law, and the Chinese Journal of International Law.

Kubo holds the degrees of DPhil, MPhil, and MJur from the University of Oxford (Somerville College), and an undergraduate degree in law from Charles University in Prague. In 2012, he was awarded the Diploma of the Hague Academy of International Law.

Kubo has been a Europaeum visiting researcher at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies and the International Committee of the Red Cross in Geneva; a Research Fellow of the Minerva Center for the Rule of Law under Extreme Conditions at the University of Haifa, Israel; a Gastwissenschaftler (visiting scholar) at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law in Heidelberg, Germany; and a Visiting Fellow of The Hague Program for Cyber Norms at the University of Leiden, the Netherlands.

He has worked at the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague and at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in Arusha, Tanzania. He has also served as a law clerk to the President of the Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic. He is currently acting as the General Editor of the Cyber Law Toolkit and as a core expert on the Woomera Manual on the International Law of Military Space Operations project.

For more information and to access the full text of Kubo's publications, please visit his personal website:

Research group links

Research interests

My research interests fall into three broad areas: 

  1. General international law. My focus is on the law of State responsibility, interactions between general international law and specialized regimes, and international civil procedure. I have recently completed a detailed commentary on the core procedural provision (Article 43) of the Statute of the International Court of Justice for the commentary edited by Professors Christian Tams and Andreas Zimmermann (Oxford University Press 2019). I am also conducting research into the law of State responsibility in military space operations within the ongoing Woomera Manual on the International Law of Military Space Operations project.
  2. Law of armed conflict. My focus is on questions of conflict qualification, lethal targeting, provision of humanitarian assistance in time of armed conflict, and the overlap between the law of armed conflict and other areas of international law. My recent monograph on Internationalized Armed Conflicts in International Law (published by OUP in 2018) provides the first comprehensive analysis of factors that transform a non-international armed conflict into an international armed conflict. I have also recently co-edited a special issue for the Journal of Conflict and Security Law with Prof. Lawrence Hill-Cawthorne on The Relationship between International Humanitarian Law and General International Law.
  3. International cyber law. My focus is on questions of cyber warfare, legal aspects of attribution of cyber operations, and cyberspace governance. I am currently acting as the General Editor of the Cyber Law Toolkit, which is the product of a multistakeholder ESRC-funded project on International Cyber Law in Practice run in collaboration with the NATO Co-operative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence and the Czech National Cyber and Information Security Agency. Together with Prof. Zhixiong Huang, I am also exploring the differences and overlaps between Chinese and Western approaches to the rule of law in cyberspace, with some of our findings having recently been published in the Chinese Journal of International Law.

I welcome doctoral proposals from qualified and motivated students within any of these three broad areas. Although any application will have to go through the formal university procedure, please feel free to approach me informally to discuss your idea prior to submitting the application.

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