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Richard Moyes

Honorary University Fellow

I work to develop international policy and legal responses to weapons and patterns of violence. I am Managing Director and co-founder of the UK-based NGO Article 36 and also currently provide coordination for the international coalition Stop Killer Robots.  

I have written extensively around weapons, their impact and their regulation - as well as on civil society coalitions, the politics of violence and on technical issues around operational responses to unexploded ordnance, risk management etc.

I worked closely on the development of the 2017 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, the 2015 Safe Schools Declaration and the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions.   I was a member of the governance board of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) when it was awarded the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize.

Article 36 is a co-founder, steering committee member and now also coordinates the campaign to Stop Killer Robots. In the context of discussion on autonomy in weapons systems, I developed the policy concept of 'meaningful human control'. Since the mid-2000s, I developed engagement on the impact on civilians of 'explosive weapons in populated areas' - now a leading international humanitarian policy priorty. Article 36 established and coordinates the International Network on Explosive Weapons.

Prior to working on international policy and law, I coordinated and managed humanitarian landmine clearance and explosive ordnance disposal operations for the UK NGO Mines Advisory Group.

I have degrees in History and in Social Anthropology from Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.



Research interests

I work on weapons, armed violence, civil society coalitions and international humanitarian law:


NGO publications (written or co-authored)

2021 Systems that cannot be effectively controlled, policy commentary on autonomous weapons, Article 36, May 2021.
2020 Autonomy in weapons: 'Explicability' as a way to secure accountability, research briefing on autonomous weapons systems, co-written with Anna Turek, Article 36, December 2020.

2020 Regulating autonomy in weapons systems, leaflet co-written and developed with Elizabeth Minor, Article 36.

2020 Autonomy in weapons systems – considering approaches to regulation, short briefing note, Article 36, March 2020.
2019 Autonomy in weapons systems: mapping a structure for regulation through specific questions, discussion paper regarding 'autonomy' and weapons systems, Article 36, 2019.
2019 Critical commentary on the "Guiding Principles", discussion paper regarding 'autonomy' and weapons systems, Article 36, 2019.

2019 Target profiles, discussion paper regarding 'autonomy' and weapons systems, Article 36, 2019.
2016 Key Elements of Meaningful Human Control, briefing paper to the CCW, Article 36, 2016.
2016 Meaningful Human Control, Artificial Intelligence and Autonomous Weapons, co-written with Dr. Heather Roff, briefing paper to the CCW, Article 36, 2016.
2014 Sex and drone strikes - Gender and identity in targeting and casualty analysis, co-written with Ray Acheson and Thomas Nash, Article 36 & Reaching Critical Will. 

2014 A treaty banning nuclear weapons: developing a legal framework for the prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons, co-written with Ray Acheson and Thomas Nash, Article 36 & Reaching Critical Will.
2013 Banning nuclear weapons, co-written with Maya Brehm and Thomas Nash, Article 36.
2013  Humanitarian consequences: short case study of the direct humanitarian impacts from a single nuclear weapon detonation on Manchester, UK, co-written with Phil Webber (Scientists for Global Responsibility) and Greg Crowther, Article 36.
2012 Impact of explosive weapons by gender and age – Iraq 2003-2011, research paper for Action on Armed Violence.
2010 Victims and survivors of armed violence: responding to rights and needs, background paper, Oslo Conference on Armed Violence, 20-22 April 2010, Action on Armed Violence for the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

2009 Explosive violence: the problem of explosive weapons, Landmine Action, London, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-8-8.

2009 Ambiguity in practice: benchmarks for the implementation of CCW Protocol V, co-written with Katie Harrison, Landmine Action.

2008, Joining the Convention on Cluster Munitions: a chance to save civilian lives, produced by Landmine Action in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

2008 Prohibiting cluster munitions: our chance to protect civilians, co-written with Greg Crowther, United Nations Development Programme, BCPR.

2007 Cluster munitions in Kosovo: analysis of use, contamination and casualties, Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-5-7.
2007 Campaign newsletter, four articles, Cluster munitions and remotely delivered landminesDumb cluster bomb policyA sensor fuzed solution? and Spiked!, Landmine Action, Autumn 2007, Issue 13.

2006 Anti-vehicle mines: managing the risk to humanitarian organisations, co-written with Greg Crowther for Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-4-0. 

2006 Failure to Protect: a case for the prohibition of cluster munitions, co-written with Dr. Brian Rappert for Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-1-9.

2006 Campaign newsletterFailure rates and the protection of civilians, Landmine Action, Summer 2006, Issue 12.

2005 Cluster munitions in Lebanon, co-written with Thomas Nash for Landmine Action, ISBN: 0-9536717-8-X.

2005 Campaign newsletterOut of balance, Landmine Action, Winter 2005, Issue 11.

2005 A study of scrap metal collection in Lao PDR, analysis and strategy recommendations for UNICEF, published by Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), Geneva.
2005 Campaign newsletterThe economics of risk, Landmine Action, Summer 2005, Issue 10.

2005 Formal and informal responses to ordnance contamination, research paper co-written with Dave Tinning commissioned by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), Geneva. 

2004 Humanitarian Impact from Mines Other Than Anti-Personnel Mines, Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), Geneva. 

2004 Tampering: Deliberate Handling and Use of Live Ordnance in Cambodia, Handicap International Belgium, Mines Advisory Group & Norwegian People’s Aid, Phnom Penh. 

2003, MAG Sri Lanka Project Report 2002, Mines Advisory Group Sri Lanka.

2002 Explosive Remnants of War: unexploded ordnance and post-conflict communities, Landmine Action, ISBN: 0-9536717-3-9. 

1999 “Landmines & Unexploded Ordnance,” chapter written by Richard Moyes & Steve Wilson for Safety First: Security Management for NGO Workers, Save the Children Fund (SCF), London. 
1999 MAG Global Activities Report, Mines Advisory Group (MAG).
1999 Lao PDR, Mines Advisory Group (MAG).
1998 Cambodia, Mines Advisory Group (MAG).
1998 northern Iraq, Mines Advisory Group (MAG).
1998 Namibia, Mines Advisory Group (MAG).
1997 Bosnia, as a contributor, Mines Advisory Group (MAG).
1997 MAG Global Activities Report, Mines Advisory Group (MAG).

1996 British Landmines, as research assistant, UK Working Group on Landmines.

Journal articles and book chapters

2021 How Can the TPNW Regime Be Sustained?, with Richard Lennane, in Journal for Peace and Nuclear Disarmament, 2021.
2020 Meaningful human control over weapons systems that apply force based on 'target profiles', co-written with Elizabeth Minor, published in Rio Seminar on Autonomous Weapons Systems 2020, Alexandre de GusmãFoundation, p73-112.
2018 Designing the perfection of violence?pp 82-89, in Rory Hyde, Mariana Pestana, Kieran Long and Zara Arshad eds. The Future Starts Here, a collection of essays to accompany the exhibition The Future Starts Here at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London (12 May - 4 November 2018), V&A Publishing, London.
2016 Meaningful Human Control, in Robin Geiss ed. Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems: Technology, Definition, Ethics, Law and Security, Federal Foreign Office of Germany, 2016.

2016 Meaningful human control over individual attacks, in ICRC, Autonomous Weapon Systems:  Implications of Increasing Autonomy in the Critical Functions, expert meeting report, 2016.
2013 The roles of civil society in the development of standards around new weapons and other technologies of warfare, with Prof. Brian Rappert, Anna Crowe and Thomas Nash, in International Review of the Red Cross, Volume 94 / Issue 886 (June 2012), Cambridge Journals [pdf version]. 
2012 Looking Inwards and Looking Outwards - Specific Challenges and Strategic Directions from the Prohibition of Cluster Munitions, co-written with Prof. Brian Rappert, in Austrian Review of International and European Law, Vol 15, 89-108 (2010).
2012  The case for addressing explosive weapons: Conflict, violence and health, with Brian Rappert and Iain Lang, Social Science & Medicine 75 (2012) 2047-2054
2011 A New Agenda on Explosive Force, with Thomas Nash, Disarmament Times, Vol 34. no. 1, Summer 2011

2011 Statecrafting Ignorance: Strategies for managing burdens, secrecy, and conflict, with Prof. Brian Rappert and A.N.Other in Maret [ed.] Government Secrecy, Emerald Books 2011. 

2010 The Convention on Cluster Munitions: A Commentary, as a contributor, book edited by Gro Nystuen and Stuart Casey-Maslen, Oxford University Press.

2010 Enhancing the protection of civilians from armed conflict – precautionary lessons, with Prof. Brian Rappert in Medicine, Conflict and Survival, Vol.26 No.1, January-March 2010.

2009 The Prohibition of Cluster Munitions: Setting International Precedents for Defining Inhumanity, with Prof. Brian Rappert in The Nonproliferation Review, July 2009, Volume 16.2


Informal papers

2016 The need to ensure meaningful human control in the face of the weaponisation of robotics and artificial intelligence, written submission by Article 36 to the Science and Technology Committee inquiry into robotics and artificial intelligence, Article 36, 2016

2014, Global Coalitions, short article for the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) based on original report written with Thomas Nash.
2013, Banning nuclear weapons, short article in Peace in Progress, issue 16,  June 2013, International Catalan Institute for Peace [pdf version].
2013 Killer Robots:  UK Government Policy on Fully Autonomous Weapons, April 2013, With Laura Boillot, Maya Brehm and Thomas Nash for Article 36.
2012 Restarting Disarmament, co-written with Thomas Nash for OpenDemocracy, 4 May 2012 [pdf version].
2011 Responding to the Impact of Explosive Weapons, Peace in Progress, Issue 10, Sept 2011, International Catalan Institute for Peace [pdf version]
2011 The proposal for a nuclear weapons convention, Article 36 strategy note circulated June 2011, revised September 2011.
2009 IEDs and explosive violence - framing the humanitarian problem, presentation to the Group of Governmental Experts of Amended Protocol II of the UN Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Landmine Action.
2009 Explosive violence - Israel and Gaza, Landmine Action policy brief, 19 February 2009.
2006 Cluster munitions and public health, informal discussion paper.
2004 Stop Killing Civilians & Start Taking Responsibility: Searching questions regarding cluster munitions, discussion paper co-written with Dr. Brian Rappert for the Cluster Munition Coalition.

2004 Economic necessity in the mine action sector - a very short discussion paper, Richard Moyes, December 2004.


NGO publications (as editor) 

2010 A State of Ignorance: the UK Government's efforts to understand civilian deaths in Iraq, 2003-2009 by Prof. Brian Rappert.

2009 Banning Cluster Munitions: Government policy and practice, co-author/sub-editor, Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action. 

2008 [ed.] Counting the cost: the economic impact of cluster munition contamination in Lebanon, by Greg Crowther for Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-8-8.

2008 [ed.] A convention beyond the Convention, by Dr. Brian Rappert for Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-7-1. 

2008 [ed.] Cluster munitions: analysis of legal cases, by Stuart Maslen and Prof. Virgil Weibe, Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-6-4. 

2007 [ed.] M85: an analysis of reliability, by Colin King, Ove Dullum and Grethe Østern for Colin King Associates, Norwegian Defence Research and Norwegian Peoples Aid. 

2006 [ed.] with Simon Conway and Raza Shah Khan, Landmines and Islamic Teachings, by Dr. Quibla Ayaz and Dr. Miraj ul Islam Zia, Sustainable Peace and Development Organisation (SPADO), Pakistan. 

2006 [ed.] Foreseeable harm: the use and impact of cluster munitions in Lebanon – 2006, report by Thomas Nash for Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-3-3. 

2006 [ed.] Bosnia’s political landmines: a call for socially responsible and conflict sensitive mine action, report by Matt Bolton and Hugh Griffiths for Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-2-6. 

2005 [ed.] Out of Balance: UK Government efforts to understand cluster munitions and International Humanitarian Law, report by Dr. Brian Rappert for Landmine Action, ISBN: 978-0-9551923-0-2. 

2005 [ed.] Explosive remnants of war and mines other than anti-personnel mines: Global impact survey 2003-2004, edited and with an introduction by Richard Moyes for Landmine Action, Mines Action Canada, Actiongroup, London, ISBN: 0-9536717-9-8.


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